Important Terminology

Health

Cardiology

 

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Dermatology

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Endocrinology

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Gastroenterology

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Gynecology

Puberty- The period of human development during which physical growth and sexual maturation occurs, beginning as early as age eight in girls 

 

 Sexual Reproduction- The process by which a living entity or organism produces a new individual of the same kind. The sex glands, or gonads (the ovaries in the female and the testes in the male) produce the germ cells (ova and sperm) that unite and grow into a new individual. Reproduction begins when the germ cells unite, a process called fertilization  

 

Fertility- the capacity to conceive or to induce conception 

 

Vagina- The canal in the female that extends from the external genitalia (vulva) to the cervix uteri. The vagina is the passage for menstrual discharge, it functions as the birth canal and more 

 

Ovary- The female gonad; one on either side of the uterus. They have two basic functions: ovulation and the production of hormones, chiefly estrogen and progesterone, which influence a woman's feminine physical characteristics and affect the process of reproduction 

 

Uterus- The hollow muscular organ in female mammals in which the zygote (fertilized ovum) normally becomes embedded and in which the developing embryo and fetus is nourished. Also known as a womb 

 

Fallopian Tubes- The narrow ducts leading from a woman's ovaries to the uterus. After an egg is released from the ovary during ovulation, fertilization (the union of sperm and egg) normally occurs in the fallopian tubes 

 

Cervix- The narrow lower end of the uterus between the isthmus (narrower opening ) and the opening of the uterus into the vagina. 

  

Menstruation- The periodic discharge from the vagina of blood and tissues from a nonpregnant uterus; the culmination of the menstrual cycle. Menstruation occurs approximately every 28 days between puberty and menopause, except during pregnancy, and the flow lasts about 5-7 days, the times varying from woman to woman  

 

Hormones- A chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream to the cells and organs on which it has a specific regulatory effect. Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes, and even mental conditions and personality traits are dependent on hormones 

 

Gonadotropin- Releasing Hormone- A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and transported to the pituitary gland through the blood stream. GnRH controls the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary 

 

Luteinizing Hormone- A hormone primarily responsible for stimulating ovulation   

 

Follicle Stimulating Hormone- A hormone that stimulates the growth and maturation of mature eggs in the ovary 

 

Estrogen- A hormone responsible for female secondary sex characteristic development, and during the menstrual cycle, act on the female genitalia to produce an environment suitable for fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of an embryo

Myology

 

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Neurology

 

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Osteology

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Psychology

 

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Pulmonology

 

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Urology

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Nutrition- The study and interpretation of nutrients and food related substances in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease  

 

Metabolism- The process concerned with the breakdown and distribution of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion  

 

Nutrients- Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, vitamins and minerals 

 

Minerals- Inorganic substances present in food and required by the body in a small amount for regulation of metabolism and maintenance of normal growth and functioning. Examples- Water, sodium, potassium, calcium  

 

Vitamins- Organic substances present in food and required by the body in a small amount for regulation of metabolism and maintenance of normal growth and functioning. Examples- Vitamins, A, B, C, D, K  

 

Potassium- A mineral needed by all body cells, especially muscle tissue   

 

Magnesium- A mineral needed for many enzyme (body) activities 

 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids- An essential fat not naturally produced by the body that provide assistance in making hormones that regulate blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, inflammation and more 

 

Iron- A mineral primarily needed for blood material bonding but also for many enzyme (body) activities  

 

Calcium- The most abundant mineral essential to the normal clotting of blood, the maintenance of a normal heartbeat, and many other functions within the body 

 

Hydration- Taking in water, to reverse or prevent dehydration 

  

Fitness- Good health, especially good physical condition resulting from exercise and proper nutrition 

Nutrition